Mercedes-Benz W126

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Mercedes-Benz W126
1987 Mercedes-Benz 500SE
Automotive industryMercedes-Benz
Parent companyDaimler-Benz
Production1979–1991 (sedan)
1981–1992 (coupé)
AssemblySindelfingen, Germany
PredecessorMercedes-Benz W116
SuccessorMercedes-Benz W140
Car classificationFull-size Luxury car
Grand tourer
Car body style2-door Coupé
4-door Sedan (car)
Automobile layoutFR layout
Internal combustion engineStraight-5
3.0 L OM617 Diesel
Straight-6
2.6 L M103
2.8 L M110
3.0 L M103
3.5 L OM603 Diesel
V8 engine
3.8 L Mercedes-Benz M116 engine
4.2 L Mercedes-Benz M116 engine
5.0 L M117
5.6 L M117
Transmission (mechanics)4-speed Automatic transmission
4-speed Manual transmission
5-speed Manual transmission
Wheelbase2935 mm (115.6 in) (280 SE)
3075 mm (121.1 in) (300 SEL)
2850 mm (112.2 in) (420 SEC)
Length4995 mm (196.7 in) (280 SE)
5160 mm (203.1 in) (300 SEL)
4935 mm (194.3 in) (420 SEC)
1988-1991 Sedan: 208.1 in (5286 mm)
1988-1991 Coupé: 199.2 in (5060 mm)
Width1820 mm (71.7 in) (all SE/SEL)
1828 mm (72 in) (all SEC)
Height1430 mm (56.3 in) (280 SE)
1440 mm (56.7 in) (300 SEL)
1407 mm (55.4 in) (420 SEC)
1988-1991 Coupé: 55.0 in (1397 mm)
Curb weight1560 kg (3439 lb) (280 SE)
1655 kg (3649 lb) (500 SEL)
1650 kg (3638 lb) (500 SEC)
For a complete overview of all S-Class models see Mercedes-Benz S-Class.

The Mercedes-Benz W126 was a series of Flagship Automobile manufactured by Germany automotive marque Mercedes-Benz. Premiering in September 1979 as the successor to the earlier W116 line, the W126 was the second generation of the Mercedes-Benz flagship to officially bear the S-Class name referring to Sonderklasse or "special class." The W126 was initially offered in Straight-6, V8, and turbo Diesel sedan models. In September 1981, 2-door Coupé versions of the W126 were introduced. Compared to its predecessor, the W126 was more aerodynamic, fuel efficient, capacious, and powerfully engined. The W126 S-Class debuted a new Mercedes-Benz design style which was subsequently used on other vehicles in the company's lineup. The W126 line also introduced many Mercedes-Benz safety innovations, including the first Airbag supplemental restraint systems, seatbelt Seat belt, and Traction control.[1]

The W126 had a twelve-year production run between 1979 and 1991, the longest of any S-Class generation since the flagship models were first built in the mid-1950s. The different body styles of the W126 S-Class achieved a combined sales total of 892,123 units (818,063 sedans and 74,060 coupés), making the W126 the most popular S-Class ever produced.[1][2]

Contents

History


Following the debut of the 1970s generation W116 (which also included the flagship Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9), Mercedes-Benz began plans for the next-generation S-Class model. Codenamed "project W126,"[1] the project had specific goals: an improved ride, better handling, and improved Fuel efficiency.[2] These improvements were aimed at helping retain the S-Class' market leadership as the world's best-selling prestige luxury sedan.[1] Following the 1970s Oil crisis, Mercedes-Benz had made fuel efficiency an especially pertinent goal (named "Energy Program"),[3] even in the large V8 engine versions of the S-Class.

In terms of the body design, the objective of the W126 design team, led by Mercedes-Benz's Bruno Sacco, was to produce a car that was sleeker and more Aerodynamic (and thus lighter and faster) than the previous model. The application of lighter materials and alloys combined with thorough wind tunnel testing to reduce overall drag meant the car consumed about 10% less fuel than its predecessor.[2] The maximum speed was also increased (250 km/h in the most powerful model).[1]

After six years of development, the W126 was formally introduced at the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (International Motor Show, or IAA) in Frankfurt on September 1979. The initial lineup featured seven models in standard (SE, SD) and long (SEL, SDL) wheelbase Sedan (car) Body style: the 280 SE/SEL, 380 SE/SEL, 500 SE/SEL and 300 SD. Technically, the long wheelbase (SEL) variants were codenamed V126, but this was not popularly known.[1] In 1981, the coupé version (SEC) of the W126 S-Class premiered at the IAA with the 500 SEC model. In 1981, Wheels Magazine selected the W126 model 380 SE as its Wheels Car of the Year.[4]

Four years after the introduction of the fuel-efficiency "Energy Program," the model range had been reworked completely. In September 1985, again at the IAA in Frankfurt, the reworked model range was reintroduced. Apart from visual changes to the bumpers, side covers and alloys, the changes made to the available collection of engine variants was most visible. Two newly-constructed 6 cylinder engines and new 4.2 and 5.6 litre V8's were added, and other engines were further upgraded.

The W126 generation was replaced by the W140 in 1992, although a satellite factory in South Africa is known to have continued production until 1994.

Styling


The W126 S-Class premiered the next generation of Mercedes-Benz car Styling, which came to dominate the lineup in the 1980s. Because the appearance differed from the rest of the Mercedes-Benz fleet at that time, some people did not appreciate the design at its debut.[3] Compared to its predecessor, the W116, the new model had a sleeker, lower profile look, with more aerodynamic qualities than before (Drag coefficient of Cd 0.36 for the sedans, 0.34 for the coupés).[1] For the first time, a Mercedes-Benz sedan was not equipped with traditional chrome Bumpers; polyurethane deformable bumpers were used, and visually aligned with body panels.[2]

The interior featured pleated Leather on the doors, woodgrain trim on the center console and across the dash, and a simplified layout with symmetrically placed buttons.

The W126 S-Class carried the following general dimensions:

Body style Length Width Height Wheelbase
W126 sedan208.1 in (5,290 mm)71.7 in (1,820 mm)56.3 in (1,430 mm)121.1 in (3,080 mm)
W126 coupé199.2 in (5,060 mm)72.0 in (1,830 mm)55.0 in (1,400 mm)112.2 in (2,850 mm)

Models


The W126 series (named in accordance to their engine size) initially included the 280, 300, 380, and 500 series models. Following the first S-Class mid-cycle refresh, the W126 series included 260, 300, 350, 420, 500, and 560 models. Variants included SE (Wheelbase), SEL (Wheelbase), SEC (coupé), and diesel models (SD / SDL).

W126 (1979-1985)

Chassis code Years Model Engine Market
W126.0211981-1985280 SM110.924 2.8L Straight-6 CarburetorWorld excluding US
W126.0221981-1985280 SEM110.987 2.8L Straight-6World excluding US
W126.0231981-1985280 SELM110.987 2.8L Straight-6World excluding US
W126.121981-1985300 SDOM617.951 3.0L Straight-5 DieselUSA and Canada only
W126.0321984-1985380 SEM116.963 3.8L V8
W126.0331981-1983380 SELM116.963 3.8L V8
W126.0431982-1983380 SECM116.963 3.8L V8
W126.0361984-1985500 SE M117.963 5.0L V8World excluding US & Australia
W126.0371984-1985500 SEL M117.963 5.0L V8for US and Canada '84 and '85
W126.0441984-1985500 SEC M117.963 5.0L V8for US and Canada '84 and '85

W126 (1986-1991)

Chassis code Years Model Engine Market
W126.121986-1991260 SEM103.941 2.6L Straight-6World excluding US & Australia
W126.0241988-1991300 SEM103.981 3.0L Straight-6'89-'91 US
W126.0251988-1991300 SELM103.981 3.0L Straight-6'88-'91 US
W126.1251986-1987300 SDLOM603.961 3.0L Straight-6 Diesel
W126.1341991350 SD OM603.97 3.5L Straight-6 Diesel
W126.1351990-1991350 SDLOM603.97 3.5L Straight-6 Diesel
W126.0341986-1991420 SEM116.965 4.2L V8World excluding US
W126.0351986-1991420 SELM116.965 4.2L V8
W126.0461986-1991420 SECM116.965 4.2L V8World excluding US
W126.0361986-1991500 SE M117.965 5.0L V8World excluding US
W126.0371986-1991500 SEL M117.965 5.0L V8World excluding US
W126.0441986-1991500 SEC M117.965 5.0L V8World excluding US
W126.0381986-1991560 SE M117.968 5.6L V8n/a in US, Australia
W126.0391986-1991560 SEL M117.968 5.6L V8
W126.0451986-1991560 SEC M117.968 5.6L V8

Production figures

Saloon models

1981 Mercedes-Benz W126 SEL (long wheelbase version) in profile
Mercedes-Benz W126 SE (standard wheelbase version)
Model[5] Cal. Years Built
260 SE 1985-199120,836
280 S 1979-198542,996
280 SE1979-1985133,955
280 SEL 1980-198520,655
300 SE 1985−1991105,422
300 SEL1985-1993 40,956
380 SE 1979-198558,239
380 SEL 1980-198527,014
420 SE 1985-199113,996
420 SEL 1985-199174,017
500 SE 1979-199133,418
500 SEL1980-199172,733
560 SE 1988-19901,251
560 SEL 1985-199175,071
300 SD 1980-198578,725
300 SDL 1986-198713,830
350 SD 1990-19912,066
350 SDL 1990-19912,925
Total818,105

Coupé models

Mercedes-Benz 560 SEC Coupé
Model Cal. Years Built
380 SEC 1981-198511,267
420 SEC 1985-19913,680
500 SEC 1981-199130,184
560 SEC 1985-199128,929
Total74,060

Features

Novel luxury features/options included the following safety, comfort, and technological features. Whilst almost all of these features are available on modern luxury cars today, each in its own right was considered very significant in the 1980s. The harmonious and "matter-of-fact" way which these were combined, as well as their renowned Durability, has added to the appeal of W126.

Safety

W126 S-Class driver's seat with SRS airbag
  • Airbag, as an additional measure of occupant protection. The driver side airbag premiered on 1981 models, as an optional extra (standard from 1985 on 500 SEL and 500 SEC), and the passenger side airbag premiered in 1986 (as an optional extra; due to its expense, few early production W126 cars were thus equipped). The passenger side airbag became standard in 1991 during the models final year.[2]
  • Traction control system (TCS), also known as Acceleration Slip Regulation (ASR) to prevent wheelspin (a Mercedes-Benz first). Available on European models only until the year 1990, when it was available to 560 SEL customers in the United States.
  • Seat belt pretensioners ETR enabled all seat belts (with exception of rear centre lap belt on sedans) to tighten when the car sensed conditions that could lead to an accident (such as sudden, forceful braking).
  • Anti-lock braking system (ABS) (as introduced by its predecessor, the W116) was optional until 1986 except on premier 500SEL and 500 SEC models.
  • Crumple zones which absorbed impact energies, reducing passenger injury.

Comfort and convenience

W126 power seats and window controls
W126 rear interior
  • Automotive lighting on the underside of the doors, to enable the occupant to see the ground when exiting the vehicle in the dark. And on sedan models, individual, rear cabin reading lamps aimed at the rear seat occupants' laps so as to avoid distracting the driver at night.
  • Eight-way powered, dual stage Car seat, with two setting memory functions for both front occupants to retain positions of power adjustable steering column and seat position for driver; and seat position for front passenger. The seat heaters were standard on the 560 SEL, and an option on other models.
  • Two-way powered, dual stage heated rear "Chesterfield (disambiguation)" bench seat (pre-1990 SELs) with four-way manually adjustable rear headrests that was standard on flagship 500 SEL and 560 SEL models.
  • As an option on the 500 SEL and 560 SEL, individual, power adjustable rear seats were provided with a Walnut grained centre console that replaced the centre seat to allow for a 2 + 2 seating format.
  • Fully automatic Climate control system that used an interior temperature sensor to more accurately climatize the cabin. This sensor was mounted near the sunroof so that when the roof was ajar, the sensor would detect cool windchills and call upon the system to adjust heat flow accordingly.
  • Exterior Temperature sensor with display set in main instrument console below the speedometer to inform the driver of exterior conditions.

Drivetrain technologies

Rear-end of a 500 SEL W126
  • Four-speed Automatic transmission with a topographical sensor that monitored the vehicle's position (whether on an incline or decline) and gas pedal position. The result was an extraordinary capacity to "hold back" acceleration when coasting downhill and to maintain the S-Class' position without using the brake pedal after coming to a complete stop on a steep incline. The transmission also featured a "limp home mode" in case of electronic failure and was programmed to start in second gear so as to permit smooth, wheel spin free launches. Second gear start could be switched on and off in European models with a S/W switch to allow more performance orientated driving versus winter driving.
  • The W126 carried forward the Self-leveling suspension Hydropneumatic suspension of the 6.9 W116 model. There were two versions of the self-levelling suspension for the sedan: a rear only hydraulic suspension using two nitrogen ballasts to automatically level the car, and a four-wheel hydraulic levelling system that could be set in three positions. The coupés were only available with the rear-levelling from the factory. In the US, rear-levelling was standard on both the 560 SEC and the 560 SEL, and optional on the 500 SEC and SEL.
  • Cruise control that used the transmission's Topographic to appropriately add and cut back the throttle fluidly as needed in order to maintain the desired set speed. The result was a cruise control that was free of the sudden throttle inputs and undesired downhill excess speed that plagued many current cruise control systems.

U.S. grey market models

500 SEL

Grey-market Mercedes-Benz 500 SE

The 500 SEL has an interesting place in National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, since American demand for this particular car drove the establishment of a large Grey import vehicles. The detuned, yet very expensive US specification 380 SE/SEL/SEC was underpowered, according to contemporary reports, and fuelled demand for the more powerful version available in the rest of the world. Approximately 22,000 units per year of grey market Mercedes-Benz (including the 500 SE/SEL) were sold in the early 1980s, according to contemporary reports in the Los Angeles Times.[6]

Problem models

350 SD/SDL

Some engines had a design Defect[7] which causes ovaling of cylinder walls, bent rods, excessive oil consumption (1 quart per 200 miles or one litre per 300 kilometres is not uncommon), and eventually engine failure. Mercedes-Benz did not accept responsibility for this defect, even when problems arose before warranty terms were met. Most of these engine failures have so-far occurred on vehicles driven under high load or city driving, while highway driven engines do not show signs of problems until many miles later, if at all. Fixing the problem can cost the owner more than $10,000 or 8000 which exceeds the value of the car. All 350 SD/SDL's will develop this issue, but will not reoccur after being repaired, therefore a thorough pre-purchase check by a qualified mechanic can give the potential buyer a better idea of what they are getting into. Some 350s have gone well over 400,000 miles (640,000 km), problem free.

380 SE/SEL

Following the Oil crisis, part of the program was to reduce weight and increase power with decreased engine weight. On early versions of the 380, the engines came with a single row Timing chain. These models were plagued with chain failure problems and some of the problems were corrected by Mercedes-Benz, free of charge. Some models, however, escaped retrofit and may at some point fail as a result. All models built in 1985 were equipped with the dual-row chain from the factory.

The reason for the susceptibility of a single row chain on this engine is because of the intricate rails and tensioner design, along with the two tall cam towers the chain must circulate around. Simple single cam engines generally do not have these problems when using a single belt.

Special variants

Popular tuners

Mercedes-Benz W126 stretch limousine
  • AMG, offered body kits for all W126 models, as well as a widebody kit for the coupé. AMG also offered many levels of engine tuning, but was most famous for the DOHC 6.0 litre engine, based on the original 117.968 engine. Also offered was a Torsen differential differential in varying ratios, manual transmission (extremely rare), and various TV/radio consoles.
  • Brabus, Offered body kits Similar to the AMG package and engine tuning.
  • Lorinser, Offered body kits Similar to the AMG package and minor engine tuning.
  • Koenig Specials, offered a famous widebody kit, a supercharger, and twin-turbo kits.
  • MKB, offered various engine kits
  • RennTech, offered most of the AMG engine tuning packages except for the DOHC engine.
  • Carat, body kits, wooden seatback trays, wood trim, AMG installer/dealer.

Armored models

Like the current model S-Guard, specially modified W126 S-Class models were produced for the transport of diginitaries and world leaders. Among the modifications made included a wheelbase stretch, Bulletproof glass, and armored body panels.

Engines

In September 1985, two newly-constructed Straight-6 SOHC engines, M103 (already used in the new middle-class Mercedes-Benz W124 series), replaced the 2.8 litre DOHC M110 engines. The carburetted version was replaced by a 2.6 litre Fuel injection engine, while the 3.0 litre version replaced the fuel injected M110. Also new was a 4.2 litre V8 engine, designed to replace the 3.8 litre version used in the W126 sedans, coupés, and the SL-Class. The 5 litre engine was modified to receive electronic ignition and electronic-mechanical fuel injection in form of the Bosch KE-jetronic system. Performance was increased to 245 hp (183 kW). An ECE version of the 5 litre M117 V8 engine was also available from September 1987 with a power output of 265 hp (198 kW)

The most spectacular new engine was the 5.6 litre V8 that was a further development from the 5 litre version. An increased stroke meant it could turn out a hefty 272 hp (203 kW). There was a higher compression version available, if required, that produced some 300 hp (220 kW). This version was only available without Catalytic converter. But even without the catalytic converter this ECE version, as it was known, would meet the Emission standards of the European community.

A 3.0 litre Straight-5 turbo diesel was offered from 1981-1985 in North America. They are known for covering many hundreds of thousands of miles with few problems. In 1986 the 300SD was replaced with the 300SDL. It was simply a stretched version of the 300SD, but the 5 cylinder engine was replaced with a new inline 6 cylinder which improved power and put some of the sluggishness of the previous diesel away.

Engine Cyl. Power Torque 0-100km/h Maximum speed Notes[8]
2.6 12V I6 166 PS (164 hp/122 kW) 228 N·m (168 lb·ft) 205 km/h (127 mph) From MY 1986
2.6 12V* I6 160 PS (158 hp/118 kW) 220 N·m (162 lb·ft) 205 km/h (127 mph) From MY 1986
2.8 12V carb. I6 156 PS (154 hp/115 kW) 223 N·m (164 lb·ft) 11.0s 200 km/h (124 mph) MY 1980-1985
2.8 12V inj. I6 185 PS (182 hp/136 kW) 240 N·m (177 lb·ft) 10.0s 210 km/h (130 mph) MY 1980-1985
3.0 12V* I6 180 PS (178 hp/132 kW) 255 N·m (188 lb·ft) 210 km/h (130 mph) From MY 1986
3.0 12V I6 188 PS (185 hp/138 kW) 260 N·m (192 lb·ft) 210 km/h (130 mph) From MY 1986
3.8 16V V8 218 PS (215 hp/160 kW) 299 N·m (221 lb·ft) 215 km/h (134 mph) MY 1980-1981
3.8 16V V8 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) 315 N·m (232 lb·ft) 9.3s 205 km/h (127 mph) MY 1982-1985
4.2 16V* V8 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) 310 N·m (229 lb·ft) 210 km/h (130 mph) MY 1986
4.2 16V V8 218 PS (215 hp/160 kW) 330 N·m (243 lb·ft) 9.0s 218 km/h (135 mph) MY 1986
4.2 16V* V8 224 PS (221 hp/165 kW) 325 N·m (240 lb·ft) 8.3s 218 km/h (135 mph) From MY 1987
4.2 16V V8 231 PS (228 hp/170 kW) 335 N·m (247 lb·ft) 8.1s 222 km/h (138 mph) From MY 1987
5.0 16V V8 223 PS (220 hp/164 kW) 365 N·m (269 lb·ft) 8.0s 220 km/h (137 mph) From MY 1986
5.0 16V V8 240 PS (237 hp/177 kW) 402 N·m (296 lb·ft) 225 km/h (140 mph) MY 1980-1981
5.0 16V V8 231 PS (228 hp/170 kW) 405 N·m (299 lb·ft) 8.1s 220 km/h (137 mph) MY 1982-1985
5.0 16V V8 245 PS (242 hp/180 kW) 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) 7.6s 230 km/h (143 mph) MY 1986
5.0 16V* V8 223 PS (220 hp/164 kW) 358 N·m (264 lb·ft) 220 km/h (137 mph) MY 1986
5.0 16V* V8 252 PS (249 hp/185 kW) 390 N·m (288 lb·ft) 7.5s 230 km/h (143 mph) From MY 1987
5.0 16V V8 265 PS (261 hp/195 kW) 405 N·m (299 lb·ft) 7.3s 235 km/h (146 mph) From MY 1987
5.6 16V* V8 242 PS (239 hp/178 kW) 390 N·m (288 lb·ft) 7.6s 228 km/h (142 mph) MY 1986
5.6 16V* V8 279 PS (275 hp/205 kW) 430 N·m (317 lb·ft) 7.2s 240 km/h (149 mph) From MY 1987
5.6 16V V8 272 PS (268 hp/200 kW) 421 N·m (311 lb·ft) 250 km/h (155 mph) MY 1986
5.6 16V RÜF V8 299 PS (295 hp/220 kW) 456 N·m (336 lb·ft) 250 km/h (155 mph) From MY 1987
5.6 16V ECE V8 299 PS (295 hp/220 kW) 455 N·m (336 lb·ft) 6.9s 250 km/h (155 mph) MY 1986/87
3.0 TD I5 125 PS (123 hp/92 kW) 245 N·m (181 lb·ft) 16.0s 165 km/h (103 mph) MY 1980-1985
3.0 TD I6 145 PS (143 hp/107 kW) 265 N·m (195 lb·ft) 13.0s 175 km/h (109 mph) MY 1986/87
3.45 TD I6 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) 310 N·m (229 lb·ft) 13.0s 175 km/h (109 mph) MY 1990/91
* = Catalyst version

Awards

The W126 S-Class was a champion in the luxury car market, dominating worldwide sales during its production run. At the same time, it also achieved several awards during its production period:

  • Car of the Year. The W126 model 380 SE was the Wheels Magazine Wheels Car of the Year in 1981.[4]
  • Safety. The W126 was awarded by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety as the "The Safest Passenger Car of the Year" in 1988 and 1989.[1]
  • Customer satisfaction. In 1987, 1988, 1989, and 1990, with the W126 S-Class leading its sales, Mercedes-Benz received the highest customer ratings in the J.D. Power and Associates Sales Satisfaction Index.[9]

Legacy

The W126 S-Class sedan and coupé

The W126 S-Class, the most successful production S-Class in history, has secured a place as one of the most well-remembered Luxury vehicles–described by some as a "Classic car."[2] Its twelve-year production run was longer than any S-Class before or since, and following the debut of the W140 S-Class in 1991, the additional two years of production in South Africa was a testament to the W126's popularity in the Export market. Although an expensive car to maintain, mostly due to the increased expense of Mercedes-Benz replacement parts, a late model W126, if properly driven, can still be a viable proposition today. Many W126s have been prominently featured in films long after production ended.[10]

This legacy stands in contrast with the W140 Chassis which had very complex accessory systems, particularly the W140 HVAC system, electrical wiring (due to the push to manufacture Environmentally friendly plastics), and auto-door closing features. Among actual owners, W126s are known for their simple maintenance, straightforward problems diagnosis, and long term Reliability. It is one of the last Mercedes-Benz models that was still easily maintainable and repairable by owners. It was also featured in Grand Theft Auto Vice City Stories, renamed as the Admiral.

References

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Ian Dunross Mercedes-Benz W126 S-class Homepage". http://www.geocities.com/MotorCity/Flats/2188/. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "S-Klasse Club information". http://www.s-klasse-club.de/gb/geschichte-126.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 The unofficial W126 homepage - model history
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gable, Chris. "Wheels' COTY the real McCoy". http://www.wheelsmag.com.au/wheels/site/articleIDs/C40CA2CB6C8577F1CA257285001E7302?open&template=domWheels. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 
  5. All figures for saloon and coupé according to: Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, vol.4. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 112–113. ISBN 3-613-02131-5.  and Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol.6. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 190. ISBN 3-613-02052-1. 
  6. Dean, Paul. Wheeling-Dealing Gray Market Hits the Skids Bad Publicity, Corporate Action, Legislation Put Brakes on Car Conversions. The Los Angeles Times, July 11, 1986
  7. Blazer, John (1999-07-06). "Bulletin NEWSLETTER 3.5 Liter Turbodiesel". MBZ.org. http://mbz.org/info/complaints/350SD/. Retrieved on 2008-09-16. 
  8. All data except acceleration and top speed figures according to: Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, vol.4. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 112–124. ISBN 3-613-02131-5. 
  9. Sanchez, Jesus. Mercedes Still Ranks No. 1 in Poll of New Car Buyers. The Los Angeles Times, August 8, 1990
  10. "S-Klasse Club buying advice". http://www.s-klasse-club.de/gb/kaufberatung.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 

Bibliography

Schlegelmilch, Rainer W.; Hartmut Lehbrink, Jochen Von Osterroth (November 2004). Mercedes. Könemann. ISBN 3-8331-1056-2. 

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